Management Professor Suzanne Peterson writes a monthly column on management and leadership in The Arizona Republic and azcentral.com. An expert on the behaviors that characterize extraordinary leaders, Peterson offers some insights into time management.

An employee’s immediate supervisor is “quite possibly the single biggest factor in an employee’s willingness to identify with an organization,” says Blake Ashforth, a professor of management at the W. P. Carey School of Business. Why should organizations care if employees have strong organizational identification? “Because organizational identification plugs into pretty much everything good in organizations,” Ashforth says.

The after-event review has emerged as a promising leadership development tool for businesses. First used by the military, the after-event review is a structured examination and analysis of an action by its participants after it has concluded. But after-event reviews do not affect everyone the same way. Assistant Professor of Management Jennifer Nahrgang and colleagues have discovered that personality traits and previous experiences determine which individuals will benefit most.

Research continues to reinforce that recruiting, hiring, and training new talent is more costly and less effective in the short term than developing those already employed. With that in mind, the W. P. Carey Center for Executive and Professional Development has created the Leadership Development Workshops, a series of five standalone courses taught by management faculty, on topics that range from driving employee engagement to leading effective team processes.

Research indicates that psychological characteristics such as optimism, resilience and hopefulness can impact performance among top management teams. What’s more, these performance-boosting characteristics can grow when nurtured, and their impact increases under transformational leadership, according to a study conducted by Suzanne Peterson and Zhen Zhang, two assistant professors of management at the W. P. Carey School of Business.